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Andrology is a specialist area involving infertility in men, ferility issues and sexual dysfunction. We examine the infertile man with the modern technology and diagnose the cause to be treated. We are one of the top male infertility treatment centre in Kerala

Symptoms and causes

Andrology causes various symptoms in men most of which goes unnoticed. Here are some symptoms caused by andrology,

  • Inability to conceive a child is a major sign of this disease.
  • Sexual dysfunction such as decreased sexual desire, unable to ejaculate, erectile dysfunction
  • Pain or swelling in the testicular area
  • Hormonal abnormality such as decreased growth of facial and body hair and breast development
  • Decreased sperm count

There are several causes for this disease, some of the medical causes include,

  • Varicocele is the swelling of veins in the testicular area draining the testicles producing low quality sperms.
  • Infections
  • Retrograde ejaculation caused by diabetes, spinal injury, medications or surgery related to the bladder, prostate or urethra.
  • Tumors
  • Hormone imbalance
  • Undescended testicles
  • Chromosomal defects
  • Celiac disease which is a digestive disorder that can cause male infertility
  • Medications such as steroids, chemotherapy, certain antifungal and ulcer medicines.

Certain lifestyle methods can cause male infertility such as drug and alcohol use, smoking, emotional stress and weight.


Different laboratory tests are available for andrology, these include

  • Semen analysis. In this method, the semen sample is collected and observed for any abnormalities such as motility and morphology, sperm count and infections.
  • Scrotal ultrasound is performed to check for diseases such as varicocele
  • Hormone testing
  • Post-ejaculation urinalysis is done to check if the sperm is entering back into the bladder after ejaculation.
  • Testicular biopsy  
  • Specialized sperm function tests
  • Transrectal ultrasound
  • Antisperm antibody testing


Once the complication is diagnosed, various treatment options are available according to the individual, some of these include

  • Surgery is performed in some cases where the patient is diagnosed with varicocele or obstructed vas deferens restoring fertility.
  • Infections are treated using antibiotics even though it does not always improve fertility.
  • Conditions such as erectile dysfunction or premature ejaculation are corrected by specific medications as well as couselling.
  • Hormonal replacement medications are used to treat those with hormone imbalance and hence improving fertility.
  • Assisted reproductive technology also known as ART is a medical procedure that involves collecting the sperm either through normal ejaculation or surgical extraction.  The collected sperm is then used to perform in vitro fertilization or is inserted directly into the female genital tract or an intracytoplasmic sperm injection is carried out.


  • Certain lifestyle change such as maintaining a healthy weight and eating a well balanced diet helps to increase male potency.
  • Sexually transmitted disease such as Chlamydia and gonorrhea causes infertility in men. Decreasing the number of sexual partners and using condoms helps in preventing sexually transmitted diseases. Prevention of these diseases is essential for healthy reproductive health as well as the well being of an individual.
  • Physical inactivity and emotional stress are also factors that affect reproductive health in men.

Authored by Dr. Nirmal Krishnan

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